A root canal is a treatment to repair and save a badly damaged or infected tooth. The procedure involves removing the damaged area of the tooth (the pulp), cleaning and disinfecting it and then filling and sealing it. The common causes affecting the pulp are a cracked tooth, a deep cavity, repeated dental treatment to the tooth or trauma. The term “root canal” comes from cleaning of the canals inside the tooth’s root.
A dental dam — a thin sheet of rubber or vinyl — will be placed over the affected and adjacent teeth. The tooth undergoing treatment protrudes through a hole punched in the dam, isolating it from the rest of the mouth. This allows the root canal treatment to be carried out in a sterile environment free from contamination by bacteria found in saliva or the rest of the mouth.
A small access hole is drilled through the biting surface of an affected back tooth or from behind a front tooth, allowing access to the pulp chamber and root canals for treatment.
The diseased and dead pulp tissue is removed from the tooth with specially designed instruments used to clean out the root canals and pulp chamber(pulp tester). This is not painful; the area is numb and the tissue being removed is either dead or dying. Once the pulp, along with the nerves contained in it, is removed, the tooth itself can no longer feel pain.
Root canal fillings are selected that will exactly fit into the freshly prepared canals. Usually a rubber-like material called gutta-percha is used to fill the canal space. It is a thermoplastic material (“thermo” – heat; “plastic” – to shape), which literally is heated and then compressed into and against the walls of the root canals to seal them. Together with adhesive cement called a sealer, the gutta-percha fills the prepared canal space. Sealing the canals is critically important to prevent them from becoming reinfected with bacteria.
A temporary or permanent filling material will then be placed to seal the access hole that was made to treat the canals, and the dental dam is removed. If the tooth lacks sufficient structure to hold a restoration (filling) in place, the dentist or endodontist may place a post (either metal or a very strong plastic) in one of the canals inside the tooth to help retain it.
Your tooth will need a permanent restoration — a filling or a crown — to replace lost tooth structure, and provide a complete seal to the top of the tooth. Your endodontist will send you back to your general dentist to determine which type of restoration is best for you. This step is of particular importance since many studies show that if the filled root canals are recontaminated with bacteria from the mouth, there could be a recurrence of infection around the tooth.
Root canal treatment by root canal treatment equipment is the process of going inside the pulp space and removing the infected, dead tissue. The space is then disinfected and sealed with special materials. Nowadays, root canal treatments are performed with advanced techniques and materials, making them far more comfortable and faster. After root canal treatment is complete, your restorative dentist will usually place a crown on your tooth to safeguard against fracture.